Department of Chemistry, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is classified as an estrogenic pharmaceutical compound. It is an agonist of the estrogen receptors and is approved for treating estrogen deficiency and osteoporosis prophylaxis in the short term when a choice of medicines is limited. EE2 is administered for the treatment of female hypogonadism and menstrual disorders. This strong estrogen is known to cause nausea, fluid retention, and thrombosis as side effects. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor EE2 levels in biological, environmental, and pharmaceutical samples. Various ultra-sensitive analytical methods were introduced during the last decades but modified electrochemical methods have great attention due to their undeniable properties. Here, all electrochemical analytical methods used for the determination of EE2 are considered and discussed.