Document Type : Review
Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 Indonesia
Heavy metals are materials with many advantages. However, it is also harmful to the environment and human health. Lead and cadmium can cause many health problems, such as cancer, liver dysfunction, nervous system disorders, cardiovascular problems, and many more. Lead and cadmium can also accumulate in water, soil, and plants. Based on the problem, the development of lead and cadmium analytical methods was necessary to monitor its concentration level in the environment. One of heavy metal analysis's widest voltammetry methods is anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). ASV involves the accumulation and stripping step to improve the analysis sensitivity toward heavy metals ions. ASV applied a three-electrode system and the working electrode played an essential role in obtaining an excellent analysis performance. Recently, bismuth-material was widely used for a working electrode in voltammetry methods, especially heavy metals analysis. Bismuth can form alloys with lead and cadmium ions during the deposition step in ASV and improve sensitivity. Bismuth also has low toxicity than mercury. Therefore, this review described the recent development of bismuth-based electrodes and their modification with other materials. We also briefly explained the ASV principle and its important parameter that needs optimization. In several previous studies, the modification of bismuth-based electrodes with various materials, such as carbon nanomaterials, conductive polymers, and metal nanoparticles, can give a synergic effect and enhancement the performance of lead and cadmium analysis.