Document Type : Review
Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
Sirjan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Laboratory Sciences, Sirjan, Iran
Department of clinical laboratory sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Department of Chemistry, South Tehran Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Male development is greatly influenced by testosterone, which also helps to build bone and muscle, as well as the testis, penis, and prostate. Endocrinology relies heavily on hormone and related biomarkers measurements. Chromatographic techniques are commonly used to analyze hormones because they offer excellent separation and quantification capabilities. Due to their usability, portability, simplicity, and sensitivity, electrochemical biosensors have grown more and more in popularity over time for hormone detection. Electrochemical biosensors are divided into four groups: impedimetric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric. Biosensors based on electrochemistry are ideal for early clinical analysis, but their commercialization is hindered by poor reproducibility. An overview of electrochemical biosensors that detect testosterone hormones is presented in our review. After an introduction to biosensors and electrochemical biosensors, testosterone hormone, the immobilization process and analytical performance of the electrochemical biosensors will be discussed. The linear ranges, the limits of detection, reproducibilities, and regenerations of developed biosensors are discussed in this paper.