A New Nanostructure Approach based on Pr(OH)3/GQD and Imidazolium Ionic Liquid for Voltammetric Analysis of Tramadol

Document Type : Original Article


Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Today, remarkable growth in the generation and abuse of drugs lead to the need for fast, simple, selective, and sensitive methods for their detection. Tramadol is one of the most abused drugs that can make addiction. A highly conductive and highly sensitive voltammetric method is developed for the determination of tramadol based on a 1-methyl-3-butyl imidazolium bromide/praseodymium hydroxide-graphene quantum dots nanocomposite modified carbon paste electrode (1-M-3-BBr/Pr(OH)3-GQD/CPE). According to the obtained voltammograms, the 1-M-3-BBr/Pr(OH)3-GQD/CPE exhibits high catalytic activity on the oxidation signal of tramadol. Tramadol shows an irreversible anodic oxidation peak in the potentials of ~1170 mV and ~1230 mV at the surface of a modified and unmodified CPE, respectively. Square wave voltammogram signals confirmed that the oxidation current of tramadol was increased linearly with its concentration in the range of 9.0×10-9-3.0×10-4 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 3.0×10−9 mol L-1. Finally, the 1-M-3-BBr/Pr(OH)3-GQD/CPE was effectively used for the determination of tramadol in some real samples with an acceptable selectivity.