Voltammetric Electrochemical Sensor for Rapid and Convenient Morphine Detection: A Review

Document Type : Review


1 Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Laboratory Sciences, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran

3 Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

4 Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch-Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Chemistry, Dehloran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehloran, Iran

6 Physiology Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran


Morphine is a non-synthetic narcotic that derived from opium; it is used for the treatment of pain and it is toxic during overdose or when abused. In comparison to conventional analytical techniques, like HPLC, electroanalytical methods have advantages like simplicity, ease of operation, and miniaturization. Today, electroanalytical sensors are used in agriculture, food, oil, and biomedical applications. In addition to the versatility of reporting signals, such as voltages, currents, power outputs, or electrochemical impedances, electrochemical sensing has low theoretical detection limits due to differences between Faradaic and non-Faradaic currents. In this review, different electrochemical sensing modification-based techniques for determining the morphine content of samples have been investigated. Furthermore, we present the performance of reported electrochemical sensors toward morphine detection, including their detection range (LDR), detection limit (LOD), and modification of electrodes. It is our belief that the information in this manuscript can serve as a platform for future research on developing sensitive electrodes for morphine and other drugs.