Urea Sensitive Impedimetric Determination based on Fluorinated-Tin oxide Electrode Modified with Novel Cadmium Sulfide Nanorod Transducer: A Unique Mechanism

Document Type : Original Article


1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Food Science & Technology, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran


As an innovative approach, cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorod was synthesized and applied to modify a fluorinated-tin oxide conducting glass (SnO2:F) as a matrix for urea bioelectrode. Besides, urease (Urs) was exploited as a particular enzyme for urea recognition with excellent accuracy and precision via a unique mechanism. In this case, Urs has immobilized physically over the matrix superficial (CdS/SnO2:F) electrode. Initially, the fabricated CdS nanorods qualities were deliberated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses while the fabricated Urs/CdS/SnO2:F bioelectrode was considered employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetric (CV) techniques. The modified bioelectrode efficiency for urea analysis was presented while the parameters affecting the peak current were improved. Under the best circumstances, the novel bioelectrode illustrated a linear response over an extensive range of urea concentrations (5 to 200 mg dL-1), the detection limit was 3 mg dL-1. The projected Urs/CdS/SnO2:F bioelectrode has a fast response time of less than 3 s. The technique was exploited to the urea measurement in pharmaceutical preparation and human serum samples, and suitable outcomes were acquired.